Laureate of the State Prize of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of
Kazakhstan, Head of the Kazakh Literature Department of the Gumilyov Eurasian National University.
In my opinion, in the years after independence, the biggest achievement for us is the return of our compatriots. In the journals they write that “today more than one million Kazakhs have returned home.” Little or a lot of it for twenty years – this is the essence of another conversation. But I mean, is this not happiness and wealth for our country and our people when the number is growing! The reason these words of mine is that in the 1990s, when the country had just gained independence, the number of Kazakhs in the country was about 40%. At the time, of course, even we got independence, but there was a question, “When will we reach at least 50% of Kazakh population.”
Already in the first years of independence, President Nursultan Nazarbayev in the former capital Almaty opened the First World Kurultay of Kazakhs, and invited Kazakhs from different parts of the world. As a result of this policy of our country the population has been enriched. Returned to Kazakhstan countrymen should not be perceived only as human resources, but also as a spiritual, scientific, and economic forces rushed to us from different parts of the world. Since returning our brothers have brought to our country, not only the traditional Kazakh cultural richness, but also the advanced samples of culture, science and art of the countries where they lived for many years.
Living in more than 40 countries Kazakhs can be divided into four great cultural hearth according to growing environment, the demographic situation of the country and training and education. They are a Mongolian cultural centre, a Chinese cultural centre, the Russian-Soviet cultural centre and the Eastern Islamic cultural centre. The first three cultural hearth is clear. And the fourth one belongs to the Eastern Islamic cultural centre which the Kazakhs come from Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan. Returnees are our brothers, despite the fact that having been born and lived for many years in such diverse cultural centres, they nevertheless have been keeping the Kazakh people’s values and culture. It is a quality that is inherent in every son of the Kazakh people around the world. This general purpose and consciousness is the basis for the grand unification of the Alash people. So how to live under the sky of independent Kazakhstan, and become one people with one goal, one destiny, one flag – the dream of all ethnic Kazakhs.
According to the data, there are millions of our compatriots who have been returned today, among them 70 doctors, 300 PhDs. Not a few of those already in the first years of independence, returning to the country, have been working hard on the development of literature and art, science and technology, the economy, investing in the development of Kazakhstan are the art and the knowledge that received abroad. One of them is the famous poet, a gifted translator, teacher, scholar and researcher of China, Doctor of Philological Sciences, professor Duken Masimkhanuly.
In my memory, the end of the 1990’s the first time I saw D.Masimkhanuly with a literary scientist, academician, late Rymgali Nurgali. Rymgali introduced me to a swarthy guy with bulging eyes as follows: “This guy’s name is Duken Masimkhan. He is my disciple. He is writing a thesis on “Literature coup period of three regions in Xinjiang.” He is also a great poet”. Later I moved to Astana, the Eurasian University, as a dean of the Faculty of Oriental Studies in 1999. We admitted the students on the Arabic, Persian, Chinese, Japanese. In autumn five or six young graduates came from Kazakh National University named after Al Farabi and worked as teachers. When I asked the teachers of the Chinese language, “Who taught you?” They proudly said, “Duken Agay.” So next year, that is, in 2000, we invited D.Masimkhanuly to work at the Eurasian University. But I do not know why, at that time he did not come. Nowadays I work with Duken in one university as a brother and colleague.
Despite the fact that D.Masimkhanuly is a young scholar, he studied a lot and knows a lot. D.Masimkhanuly told the fate of many difficulties, and because he matured early. To make sure of this, it is enough to see his biography.
In 1963, he was born in the area of Akshi Tekes region of Xinjiang province in the family Masimkhan. His real name is “Dulat.” But may be because he was the youngest child, the parents gave him a pet name “Duken”. And then, this name was prescribed in the document.
According to Duken, his father Masimkhan Nakysbekuly was a simple peasant, aul mullah. But his grandfather Nakysbek Zhalpetekuly participated in the “Karkarinskom uprising” in 1916 after the suppression of the revolt by soldiers of imperial Russia, he and other rebels entered the territory of China, prior to that, in the vicinity of Shalkode Kazakhstan, during the years 1917-1937. Nakysbek Zhalpetekuly served as parish steward in Tekes in the area of the Ili region of China. In general, this name is also known in history as “Nakysbek Sheshen”. In an encyclopedic collection of “Famous biy-sheshder of Kazakh people” includes biography, oratory words, poems and songs of Nakysbek speaker. A mother Duken was also known as an aytys poet in their environment. She skillfully told Kazakh stories, legends and epics. Opening the door to adulthood in such a family, Duken Masimkhanuly from an early age growing partisan (entrained) to the art of the word.
He graduated with honors from High School District in 1982, Duken Masimkhanuly in the same year received training at the Central University of Nationalitie in Beijing.
In 1987 he graduated with honors and with the title “sample scientist” (a title given to students who are in parallel with studies also engaged in literary or scientific work) above-mentioned university, got a degree in philology and translator. In the same year, at the invitation of Duken began his career at the Institute of Literature of the Academy of Humanities Xinjiang in Urumqi, as a researcher. Here, along with the well-known Chinese and Uighur scholars, Kazakh officials, whose names are known to the people of Alash and are on par with the names Nygmet Mynzhanov, Zhakyp Myrzahanov worked fruitfully led the research, literary creativity, translation work of D.Masimkhanuly. Enumerating, it can be noted in a short period of five years from 1987 to 1993 in China and abroad have been published more than 30 scientific papers, one of which is a collection of poem “Journey to the heart”. By passing this in the years D.Masimkhanuly are also known as translators such works as “The red zone of the globe” (novel), “Studies in Xinjiang historical figures” (collection of articles), “Man – Machine LM” ( fantastic collection of short stories), poems of famous Chinese and foreign poets and films made for television serials.
In 1990 his work “Studies” Oguzname “was awarded the prize” Best job in the research literature of national minorities. “And in 1991 D.Masimkhanuly for research papers was recognized as the All-China Youth in 1993 Union of Writers of China was awarded the prize “Originaolny talent.”
In March 1993 by the special invitation of the Kazakh National University, Al-Farabi, Duken Masimkhanuly, returned to his historical homeland – Kazakhstan, and after the conclusion of the contract decides to stay and carries out teaching activities at the Department of Far Eastern countries in KNU, at the Faculty of Oriental Studies. In the period from 1999 to 2002 he was in charge of this department. In 2002, he was invited for the post of assistant professor in the Department of Oriental Studies of the Eurasian National University named after L.N.Gumilev. from 2002 to 2010 D.Masimkhanuly was an assistant professor, department chairman and professor. Now D.Masimkhanuly is a head of the Chinese Language Department of the Philology faculty.
In 1999, under the leadership of R.Nurgali, D.Masimkhanuly defended his candidate dissertation on “the idea of national liberation in the poetry of the Kazakhs of China (20-50 years. Twentieth century).” Alash idea in the early twentieth century reached its peak, and passed into a nationwide movement, but after the formation of the leaders of the USSR, carrying the banner of Alash was limited in the actions, and even prosecuted. Later, everyone who was involved in the Alash movement was called “enemies of the people” and were arrested. At this time, many of the leaders of Alash hiding in East Turkestan. But even there, they continued to spread the idea of national liberation and the purpose of Alash, and urged colleagues to the national liberation struggle. In 1937, despite the fact that Stalin through negotiations with Shane Shicai Alash leaders cut off in that direction, but the people on the path of struggle, yet freed Xinjiang, and in 1944 was formed Republic of East Turkestan. This state lasted five years until 1949, when it was formed by the People’s Republic. During these years, poets such as Akyt Ulimzhiuly, Jusupbek Shaihslamuly, Aset Naymanbayuly, Kodek Maralbayuly, Nurtaza Shalgynbaev, Tanzharyk Zholdyuly, Shargyn Algazyuly were ardent advocates of the idea of Alash and the national liberation struggle. The scientific work of D.Masimkhanuly was the first fundamental research, where, in accordance with the requirements of that time was considered the national liberation direction from the point of view of national consciousness and free of desires in the literature of the period.
In 2008 D.Masimkhanuly defended his doctoral thesis on “The national tradition and innovation in the Kazakh and Chinese literature (based on the works of Lu Xun and M.Auezov). The main leading organization of the scientific work was considered the Institute of Literature and Art named after M.Auezov. At the time, I was the director of the Institute. Institute workers and scientists were familiar with the work. The work’s subject was fresh. Also, the work was carried out with the code “comparative literature.” Duken’s work was fully and passionately discussed, because comparative literature, which emerged and took the broad development of 30-40 years. It was only extinguished after a big gap in the half-century after independence comparative literature began to take shape, and settled as a science. Naturally at this late development of science had their reasons. One of the main reasons includes the fact that the Soviet government in comparative literature was hinged label “bourgeois science.” And so it was not possible to separately consider the science and animate through the methods of literary study. The second reason was the extension of the concept that all poets, writers emerged from the People’s Republic of “great Russian writers Russian Literature,” and that those who would not be writing from the point of view of comparative literature was required to “prove to the arguments” of the idea. So Kazakh writers led by the great Auezov were considered as men of literature who “took the example and learned from the Russian writers.” Duken’s comparison Kazakh writer M.Auezov with the Chinese writer Lu Xun, indeed, was an innovation of the Kazakh literature. Just here it would be appropriate to say that this was the first doctoral dissertation in the field of “comparative literature”, which was defended in the state language.
D.Masimkhanuly, who began his career at university, has published such collections as “Journey to the Heart” (China, Urumqi, 1991), “Water steel sword” (Almaty, 1998), ” kokpar “(Almaty, 2003),” The steam of gold “(China, Beijing, 2007),” Pink Dream “(Astana, 1998), such scientific books as” The Song – Arrow “(monograph, Almaty , 2000.) “Discussion” (a collection of research articles, Astana, 2001.) “Word – Sail” (monograph, Almaty, 2005.), “Mukhtar Auezov and Lu Xun” (monograph, Almaty, 2007 ), “Kazakh and Chinese literature: the national tradition and innovation” (monograph, Pavlodar, 2010). “Eurasian civilization: spiritual and cultural ties of Turk and ancient Chinese people” (a collection of research articles, Astana, 2012.). In addition more than 300 research articles have been published in various national and international journals.
Today Duken as a poet, scholar, sinologist, translator, a member of the Society of Writers of ethnic minorities in China, the Writers’ Union of Kazakhstan and the World Society Sinolog. Also since 2012 D.Masimkhanuly has been a visiting professor of the Institute of Fine Arts of the Ministry of Culture of Xinjiang China.
In the literature, in general, working from the very beginning with the poems D.Masimkhanuly are already familiar with the public as a great talented poet with a developed his own style. Now it is time to analyze his works. However, the following information shall be a witness to these words: until today D.Masimkhanuly is the winner of international and national poetry competitions, in September 2011 D.Masimkhanuly as Kazakh poet was invited to the “Festival of akyns Turkic world”, held in Elazyg Turkey. Today, the poet’s verses translated into Turkish, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Uzbek, Kirghiz, Uighur.
“The teacher will never get tired of teaching,” – said the great Abay. The People’s enlightenment and education has never lost its significance in humans. For us, the young state, which has just recently released his ship in the vast ocean called the international community, education is particularly important. So what country would not have citizenship and patriotism of historical figures is measured by how much they invested in this area, that is education. D.Masimkhanuly, which we are discussing now returned to their historic homeland in the early 1990s. In the most difficult times, when we became independent, and since then he has been working hard in the leading higher educational institutions of Kazakhstan. It was a time when not only our brothers returning from abroad, but also the local people were hard to live their days. In addition, those years salary was not given in time. However, the markets were selling Chinese goods that cost 100 tenge for 100 U.S. dollars. There were a lot of people who gave up their studies, work and went into the trade. Seeing all this, Duken did not give up teaching. So he trained hundreds of young professionals Sinologist, and made a personal contribution to the development and formation of the Kazakh Sinology. In addition, these books D.Masimkhanuly as “Foundations of Chinese phonetics”, “Introduction to the Chinese Philology”, “World of Lu Xun”, “Lectures on Lu Shun Studies”, “History of Chinese Literature” (2 volumes), “cross-cultural texts” are at the hands of his students, and compiled together with his wife A. Abidenkyzy “Big Chinese-Kazakh dictionary” (containing 70 million words and phrases) has been prepared for publication.
Until today D.Masimkhanuly for the Kazakh people trained more than 100 young professionals Sinologist who fruitfully work in the office of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kazakh Foreign Ministry, Ministry of Defense, the National Security Committee of Kazakhstan, RK, Kazakhstan’s embassy and consulates in China and in joint ventures in Kazakhstan and China, in universities and research establishments in the Republic of Kazakhstan. D.Masimkhanuly work in the education sector has not remained unappreciated. Not so long ago, by order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the RK, D.Masimkhanuly was awarded the medal “Y.Altynsarin.”
One of the most fruitful methods of national enlightenment is the translation. Every nation that wants to raise their science, education, art and culture to the next level and join the developed countries, it can not be done without foreign languages and translation. Therefore, referring to the story, you can see that every person who knows a foreign language and worry for the people, do not go without translation. Kazakhstan is a country which took the world’s knowledge through the Russian language till 1990. Just after independence, young people returning from abroad and our brothers started making literary, scientific, political translations of originals with different languages of the world. Ahead of translators who tirelessly work in this area, it is worth D.Masimkhanuly. In addition to the above scientific and literary works, D.Masimkhanuly in periodicals also translates many works of Chinese writers, who represents the Kazakh reader. In the field of translation of one of the most striking works of D.Masimkhanuly, you can call the selected works of the great Chinese writer Lu Xun (Lu Xun. Novels and short stories), published in the state program of “cultural heritage”. In 2012, it received for this transfer International Literacy Award “Alash” of the Union of Writers of Kazakhstan, we believe it is appropriate for both the translator and to translation itself. Also in 2010, at the suggestion of the magazine “World Literature”, D.Masimkhanuly helped to prepare a special issue of the magazine, aimed at the Chinese literature, where he participated in the compilation of poets and writers, their works, sorting and translation work. This number (2010, № 2) of the journal was published with a foreword by D.Masimkhanuly under the name “Chinese literature: originality and specificity,” received high praise from the Kazakh readers. So in 2012 D.Masimkhanuly was awarded the prize “The Silk Road: the humanitarian community” of the SCO for its outstanding work in the promotion of Chinese literature and culture in Kazakhstan, and spiritual development of relations between Kazakhstan and China.
“To be a poet – it’s your choice, but to be a citizen – it is your duty.” This position is needed and the Kazakh intelligence. Because we are a very young country, which is just getting on its feet. And to reduce all the pressing issues in politics – not the actions of a fertile country. From this perspective, social work, which leads D.Masimkhanuly is an example for the people. In spite of the above, its emergency work, D.Masihanuly actively participates in important events of the country. He does not say, “I’m here in Kazakhstan, in my motherland. My position is not bad. As for the rest, I do not care”. And vice versa he works constantly hard to help the brothers, who had returned around the world to their historic homeland, stand up on your feet and get back into line. Enumerating, we can say that D.Masimkhanuly since the first days after returning took part in solving on issues such as the adoption of immigration law, citizenship, pensions, education, volume quotas, and the rules of its receipt, the rights of citizens, disadvantaged local officials, bureaucrats. He also was in admittance of the ministers, the Secretary of State, members of Parliament, and even the President. Given his patriotism, active involvement, respect and authority among fellow repatriates, on the orders of the President in 2003, D.Masimkhanuly was appointed a member of the “National Council of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan.” In this Council, he is a public representative on migration and repatriates. Since 2010, he is a member of the “Public Council on migration and relations with compatriots.” From 2004 he is head of the social organization “Ata-zhurt” which is organized by the brothers-oralmans who live in Astana and nearby areas. This organization is working productively on different issues of our fellow citizens who have returned from abroad.
The is a saying in Kazakhs: “There are a lot of stallions, but not every one of them – a thoroughbred horse, there are a lot of horsemen, but not all of them – the citizen”. To sum up, I want to say that from the first years of independence returned to Kazakhstan with the word “Motherland”, D.Maimhanuly has been working hard for 20 years for the good of the spiritual development of the country, and he is fully consistent with the title of “citizen” within the meaning of the Kazakh people. I wish Duken to continue his exceptional work in order to develop and prosper our independent Kazakhstan.